As a result, the Spanish and French thrones remained separate. 72, 90–96, Erleigh, pp. George was succeeded by his son, George Augustus, who took the throne as George II. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The Prince was told to leave the royal residence, St. James's Palace. The following year, George was invested as an Imperial Field Marshal with command of the imperial army stationed along the Rhine. The economic crisis, known as the South Sea Bubble, made George and his ministers extremely unpopular. [32], As King his arms were: Quarterly, I, Gules three lions passant guardant in pale Or (for England) impaling Or a lion rampant within a tressure flory-counter-flory Gules (for Scotland); II, Azure three fleurs-de-lis Or (for France); III, Azure a harp Or stringed Argent (for Ireland); IV, tierced per pale and per chevron (for Hanover), I Gules two lions passant guardant Or (for Brunswick), II Or a semy of hearts Gules a lion rampant Azure (for Lüneburg), III Gules a horse courant Argent (for Westphalia), overall an escutcheon Gules charged with the crown of Charlemagne Or (for the dignity of Archtreasurer of the Holy Roman Empire). im Leineschloss, Hannover, Fürstentum Calenberg; † 11. It was widely assumed, even by Walpole for a time, that George II planned to remove Walpole from office but was prevented from doing so by his wife, Caroline of Ansbach. [80] However, in mainland Europe, he was seen as a progressive ruler supportive of the Enlightenment who permitted his critics to publish without risk of severe censorship, and provided sanctuary to Voltaire when the philosopher was exiled from Paris in 1726. Unlike his predecessor, Queen Anne, George rarely attended meetings of the cabinet; most of his communications were in private, and he only exercised substantial influence with respect to British foreign policy. [28] Partly due to contrary winds, which kept him in The Hague awaiting passage,[29] he did not arrive in Britain until 18 September. [14] The likelihood of any of them converting to Protestantism for the sake of the succession was remote; some had already refused. [82] John H. Plumb noted that: Some historians have exaggerated the king's indifference to English affairs and made his ignorance of the English language seem more important than it was. He was the eldest son of Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, and his wife, Sophia of the Palatinate. As part of the war effort, George invaded his neighbouring state, Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, which was pro-French, writing out some of the battle orders himself. [35], George's distrust of the Tories aided the passing of power to the Whigs. Sophia was in her seventy-first year, thirty-five years older than Anne, but she was very fit and healthy and invested time and energy in securing the succession either for herself or for her son. George did not hold Marlborough's actions against him; he understood they were part of a plan to lure French forces away from the main attack.[20]. Born in Hanover to its Elector Ernest Augustus and Electress Sophia, George inherited the titles and lands of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg from his father and uncles. [32] His treatment of his wife, Sophia Dorothea, became something of a scandal. "[26], George's mother, the Electress Sophia, died on 28 May 1714[d] at the age of 83. [16] However, it was George who understood the complexities of English politics and constitutional law, which required further acts in 1705 to naturalise Sophia and her heirs as English subjects, and to detail arrangements for the transfer of power through a Regency Council. In 1710 he was granted the dignity of Arch-Treasurer of the Empire,[21] an office formerly held by the Elector Palatine; the absence of the Elector of Bavaria allowed a reshuffling of offices. – geboren als Herzog Georg Ludwig von Braunschweig-Lüneburg – (* 28. [5], By 1675 George's eldest uncle had died without issue, but his remaining two uncles had married, putting George's inheritance in jeopardy as his uncles' estates might pass to their own sons, should they have had any, instead of to George. Sophia became heiress presumptive to the new Queen of England. Black Friday Sale! Ernest Augustus died on 23 January 1698, leaving all of his territories to George with the exception of the Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück, an office he had held since 1661. By contrast in Great Britain, George had to govern through Parliament. George was active in directing British foreign policy during his early reign. [52] The Company bribed Lord Sunderland, George's mistress Melusine von der Schulenburg, and Lord Stanhope's cousin, Secretary of the Treasury Charles Stanhope, to support their plan. [11] However, sources in Hanover itself, including Sophia, denied any knowledge of Königsmarck's whereabouts.[10]. / 22. Abroad, Britain’s involvement in the War of the Spanish…. By the end of the year the rebellion had all but collapsed. [39] In 1717 the birth of a grandson led to a major quarrel between George and the Prince of Wales. [22] The emperor's death in 1711 threatened to destroy the balance of power in the opposite direction, so the war ended in 1713 with the ratification of the Treaty of Utrecht. Threatened with the scandal of an elopement, the Hanoverian court, including George's brothers and mother, urged the lovers to desist, but to no avail. [8], In 1683 George and his brother Frederick Augustus served in the Great Turkish War at the Battle of Vienna, and Sophia Dorothea bore George a son, George Augustus. Sunderland, however, retained a degree of personal influence with George until his sudden death in 1722 allowed the rise of Sir Robert Walpole. George was born on 28 May 1660 in the city of Hanover in the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg in the Holy Roman Empire. England’s Whig politicians began to court his favour, but many Tories remained loyal to the Old Pretender. As Sophia, Electress of Hanover, had died two months before Queen Anne's death in August 1714, Sophia's eldest son George, Elector of Hanover, inherited the throne under the Act of Settlement of 1701. [25], Whig politicians believed Parliament had the right to determine the succession, and to bestow it on the nearest Protestant relative of the Queen, while many Tories were more inclined to believe in the hereditary right of the Catholic Stuarts, who were nearer relations. George was born on 28 May 1660 in the city of Hanover in the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg in the Holy Roman Empire. George I, in full George Louis, German Georg Ludwig, (born May 28, 1660, Osnabrück, Hanover [Germany]—died June 11, 1727, Osnabrück), elector of Hanover (1698–1727) and first Hanoverian king of Great Britain (1714–27). [4] Sophia bore Ernest Augustus another four sons and a daughter. Corrections? His mother at first opposed the marriage because she looked down on Sophia Dorothea's mother, Eleonore (who came from lower nobility), and because she was concerned by Sophia Dorothea's legitimated status. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. As a result, George was forced to give Walpole and Townshend a free hand in the ministry. Naturally, George formed a predominantly Whig ministry. [b] He was the eldest son of Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, and his wife, Sophia of the Palatinate. Perhaps his own mother summed him up when "explaining to those who regarded him as cold and overserious that he could be jolly, that he took things to heart, that he felt deeply and sincerely and was more sensitive than he cared to show. [77] Though he was unpopular in Great Britain due to his supposed inability to speak English, such an inability may not have existed later in his reign as documents from that time show that he understood, spoke and wrote English. [70] Walpole became extremely powerful and was largely able to appoint ministers of his own choosing. The subsequent War of the Quadruple Alliance involved the same issue as the War of the Spanish Succession. He had little difficulty in communicating with his ministers in French, and his interest in all matters affecting both foreign policy and the court was profound. 151–152; Dickinson, p. 58; and Hatton, p. 250, Dickinson, p. 58; Erleigh, pp. He was more than fifty years of age when he came amongst us: we took him because we wanted him, because he served our turn; we laughed at his uncouth German ways, and sneered at him. The Jacobites were poorly equipped and were easily defeated by British artillery at the Battle of Glen Shiel. The following year, Frederick Augustus was informed of the adoption of primogeniture, meaning he would no longer receive part of his father's territory as he had expected. [9], Sophia Dorothea had a second child, a daughter named after her, in 1687, but there were no other pregnancies. "[5] Whatever his true character, he ascended a precarious throne, and either by political wisdom and guile, or through accident and indifference, he left it secure in the hands of the Hanoverians and of Parliament. George I er (né Georg Ludwig ; Hanovre, 28 mai 1660 – 11 juin 1727 [N 1], Osnabrück) fut roi de Grande-Bretagne du 1 er août 1714 jusqu'à sa mort. Many individuals—including aristocrats—lost vast sums and some were completely ruined. George's prospects were now better than ever as the sole heir to his father's electorate and his uncle's duchy. She was, however, endowed with an income, establishment, and servants, and allowed to ride in a carriage outside her castle under supervision. In 1710, George announced that he would succeed in Britain by hereditary right, as the right had been removed from the Stuarts, and he retained it. [50] Walpole and Townshend were reappointed as ministers the following year and a new, supposedly unified, Whig government formed. [63] In 1721 Lord Stanhope, though personally innocent,[64][65] collapsed and died after a stressful debate in the House of Lords, and Lord Sunderland resigned from public office. George's father took him hunting and riding, and introduced him to military matters; mindful of his uncertain future, Ernest Augustus took the fifteen-year-old George on campaign in the Franco-Dutch War with the deliberate purpose of testing and training his son in battle. He suffered a stroke on the road between Delden and Nordhorn on 9 June 1727,[73] and was taken by carriage to the Prince-Bishop's palace at Osnabrück[e] where he died in the early hours before dawn on 11 June 1727. Although the Jacobite rebellions of 1715 and 1719 were readily suppressed, he was far from popular in England. In 1709 George resigned as field marshal, never to go on active service again. When George’s mother died on June 8, 1714, he became heir to the throne, and on the death of Queen Anne (Aug. 1, 1714) the Whigs, who had just gained control of the government, ushered him into power. Walpole became de facto Prime Minister, although the title was not formally applied to him (officially, he was First Lord of the Treasury and Chancellor of the Exchequer). [12] Melusine von der Schulenburg acted as George's hostess openly from 1698 until his death, and they had three daughters together, born in 1692, 1693 and 1701. [15], In August 1701 George was invested with the Order of the Garter and, within six weeks, the nearest Catholic claimant to the thrones, the former king James II, died. The measure would have solidified Sunderland's control of the House by preventing the creation of opposition peers, but it was defeated after Walpole led the opposition to the bill by delivering what was considered "the most brilliant speech of his career". I, for one, would have been on his side in those days. "This declaration was meant to scotch any Whig interpretation that parliament had given him the kingdom [and] ... convince the Tories that he was no usurper. [3] His coronation was accompanied by rioting in over twenty towns in England. [27] She suffered a stroke, which left her unable to speak, and died on 1 August 1714. However, Walpole commanded a substantial majority in Parliament and George II had little choice but to retain him or risk ministerial instability. In addition to his son and successor, George II, he had a daughter, Sophia Dorothea (1687–1757), wife of King Frederick William I of Prussia and mother of Frederick the Great. The Treaty of Utrecht (1713) had recognised the grandson of King Louis XIV of France, Philip, as king of Spain on the condition that he gave up his rights to succeed to the French throne. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... There’s a first time for everything—and there’s a lot of everything across all of history. George died of a stroke on a trip to Hanover. His tenure was not altogether successful, partly because he was deceived by his ally, the Duke of Marlborough, into a diversionary attack, and partly because Emperor Joseph I appropriated the funds necessary for George's campaign for his own use. In February 1716, facing defeat, James and Lord Mar fled to France. Despite this, the German princes thought he had acquitted himself well. The king, supposedly following custom, appointed the Lord Chamberlain, the Duke of Newcastle, as one of the baptismal sponsors of the child. Sophia was the granddaughter of King James I of England through her mother, Elizabeth Stuart, Queen of Bohemia. Nevertheless, he often found it difficult to get his way in domestic politics, in which he had to deal with such strong-willed ministers as Robert Walpole (later earl of Orford), James Stanhope, and Viscount Charles Townshend. [41] George and his son were later reconciled at the insistence of Robert Walpole and the desire of the Princess of Wales, who had moved out with her husband but missed her children, who had been left in the king's care. [71], George, although increasingly reliant on Walpole, could still have replaced his ministers at will. He attempted diligently, however, to fulfill his obligations to his new kingdom. The invasion never posed any serious threat to George's government. His shrewd diplomatic judgment enabled him to help forge an alliance with France in 1717–18. In response the English Parliament passed the Alien Act 1705, which threatened to restrict Anglo-Scottish trade and cripple the Scottish economy if the Estates did not agree to the Hanoverian succession., Undiscovered Scotland - Biography of George I, The Home of the Royal Family - Biography of George I, George I - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), George I - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). [69], As requested by Walpole, George revived the Order of the Bath in 1725, which enabled Walpole to reward or gain political supporters by offering them the honour. The English Parliament’s Act of Settlement (1701), seeking to ensure a Protestant succession to the throne in opposition to the exiled Roman Catholic claimant (James Edward, the Old Pretender), made George third in line for the throne after Princess Anne (queen from 1702–14) and his mother. Towards the end of his reign, actual political power was held by Robert Walpole, now recognised as Britain's first de facto prime minister. [75] In subsequent reigns the power of the prime minister increased further at the expense of the power of the sovereign. "The Fifteen", however, was a dismal failure; Lord Mar's battle plans were poor, and James arrived late with too little money and too few arms. Writers of the nineteenth century, such as Thackeray, Sir Walter Scott and Lord Mahon, were reliant on biased first-hand accounts published in the previous century such as Lord Hervey's memoirs, and looked back on the Jacobite cause with romantic, even sympathetic, eyes. In the ensuing scandal it became apparent that George and his mistresses had taken part in South Sea Company transactions of questionable legality, but Walpole’s skill in handling the House of Commons saved the king from disgrace. George married his cousin Sophia Dorothea of Celle in 1682, but in 1694, accusing her of infidelity, he divorced her and imprisoned her in the castle of Ahlden, where she died 32 years later. [79], The British perceived George as too German, and in the opinion of historian Ragnhild Hatton, wrongly assumed that he had a succession of German mistresses. Married 1707 Ernst August Philipp von dem Bussche-Ippenburg (divorced before 1714); Created Countess of Walsingham for life; married 1733, Leonora von Meyseburg-Züschen, widow of a. Baroness Sophie Caroline Eva Antoinette von Offeln (2 November 1669 – 23 January 1726), Ellis, Kenneth L. "The administrative connections between Britain and Hanover. [78] He certainly spoke fluent German and French, good Latin, and some Italian and Dutch. She had collapsed in the gardens at Herrenhausen after rushing to shelter from a shower of rain. Take a deep dive into who, or what, came first with this quiz. [10] Later rumours supposed that Königsmarck was hacked to pieces and buried beneath the Hanover palace floorboards. They in turn, influenced British authors of the first half of the twentieth century such as G. K. Chesterton, who introduced further anti-German and anti-Protestant bias into the interpretation of George's reign. He succeeded his father as elector of Hanover in 1698. He introduced a Peerage Bill that attempted to limit the size of the House of Lords by restricting new creations. Ugly rumours concerning his treatment of his wife were widely disseminated, and the greed of his two German mistresses reflected badly on his court. Walpole was actually afraid of being removed from office towards the end of George I's reign,[72] but such fears were put to an end when George died during his sixth trip to his native Hanover since his accession as king. Philip was allowed to succeed to the Spanish throne but removed from the French line of succession, and the Elector of Bavaria was restored. [57] The company's success led to the speculative flotation of other companies, some of a bogus nature,[58] and the Government, in an attempt to suppress these schemes and with the support of the Company, passed the Bubble Act. Juni 1727 greg. After the election, the Whig-dominated Parliament passed the Septennial Act 1715, which extended the maximum duration of Parliament to seven years (although it could be dissolved earlier by the Sovereign). The murder was claimed to have been committed by four of Ernest Augustus's courtiers, one of whom, Don Nicolò Montalbano, was paid the enormous sum of 150,000 thalers, about one hundred times the annual salary of the highest-paid minister. Certain government bonds could not be redeemed without the consent of the bondholder and had been issued when interest rates were high; consequently each bond represented a long-term drain on public finances, as bonds were hardly ever redeemed.
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